Since the Second World War the interaction between Poles and Jews has taken place in a number of different arenas. In the first place, a fairly substantial Jewish community did emerge in post-war Poland, numbering at its height nearly 300,000. It proved very difficult to maintain its viability given the memory of the Holocaust, the persistence of anti-Semitism and the impact of communist politics. As a result it suffered constant hemorrhaging with waves of emigration intensifying particularly after the Kielce pogrom in July 1946, in 1956–1957, and in the aftermath of the ‘anti-Zionist’ campaign of 1968. The end of communism has led to a revival of Jewish life in Poland and today there are perhaps some 30,000 people connected in some way with Jewish life. Throughout the post-war period Jews from Poland have played an important role both in the investigation
of the Polish-Jewish past and in the evolution of Polish-Jewish relations.